Tuesday, 28 January 2014


In Greek history, Pelasgus was the ancestor of the Pelasgians, a population that were the ancestors of the Greeks - that is they preceded the Greeks and were the source of all knowledge that one sees later in the so called Greek civilization.

Where did the Pelasgians come from and what does the name 'Pelasgus' mean in Greek? There is no translation for the name 'Pelasgus' in Greek which is not surprising because the Pelasgians spoke a language that pre-dated Greek. 

Much later, in around  700 B.C., Asius one of the poets of Greek civilization had this to say about the Pelasgusian race:

"Godlike Pelasgus, on the mountain chase,
The sable (black) earth gave forth her mortal race."

The couplet is originally in Greek, and Asius uses the Greek word 'gaia' in the couplet which later interpreters translated as 'earth'. But Edward Pococke in his book 'India in Greece' written in 1851 AD clarifies. He says that it was the word 'Gaya' that was tweaked by interpreters into 'gaia' in Asius's work - it was Gaya (in Bihar in India) that 'gave forth Pelasgus its race'. And there are reasons which lead credence to Edward Pococke's claim. 

For one, the etymological origin or the source of the Greek word 'gaia' is unknown - which is strange because even Proto Indo European which was reconstructed by reverse engineering has not been able to find or fabricate a source word for 'gaia'!

Not only did the Greeks, intentionally or for want of an explanation, misinterpret the words 'gaia'; they also invented legends and myths to support their contention. Edward Pococke, in his book, 'India in Greece' published in 1851 wrote, "It is entertaining to view the process by which the Greeks first misunderstood a Pelasgic term, then fitted out a tale upon on their own translation of what they imagined to be Greek...."

For example the word 'gaia' was not only misinterpreted to mean 'earth', it was then put forth as the 'personification of Mother Earth' and in time Gaia became Goddess Gaia.

Unlike the Hindu Goddesses where each of the names has a meaning in Sanskrit (for example Durga from Sanskrit 'durg' (दुर्ग) meaning 'difficult' - she is the goddess who give strength against difficulties, Parvati from Sanskrit 'parvat' (पर्वत) meaning 'mountain' - she is the daughter of the Himalayas, or 'Lakshmi' (लक्ष्मी) - meaning 'good fortune'- Lakshmi is the goddess of wealth, the Greeks have been unable to decode any of the names of their Goddesses in their language. And they also fail to explain the source words for either Pelasagus or Gaia.

In his book, "Mysteries of Ancient Greece, Coen Vonk writes,"The history and origin of ancient Greece were not clearly written down by the Greeks themselves, but ancient Indian writings such as the Puranas, the Mahabharata, and the Rajput genealogies may hold keys to solving some of these questions."

Which brings us back to Pelasagus and Gaia. In his research work, Edward Pococke had traced the movement of tribes from India in years far before when the Greek civilization had begun to take roots.

The ancient Sanskrit texts Mahabharata, YoginiTantra, and the Vayu Purana mention the city of 'Gaya' in Bihar, then called 'Pelasa'. According to the Vayu Purana the city of Gaya was named after an asura by the name 'Gayasura' - who practiced asceticism by praying to God Vishnu. He chanted and sang praises in the name of Vishnu, hence 'geya' (गेय) or 'song' - from Sanskrit 'gai' (गै), to 'sing', 'chant', or 'sing praises'.

And if indeed there was a race that in its slow migration towards the West took along with itself the glories of ancient Gaya, they have left their footprints on way. For en-route in their journey is the temple of Rekim-Gaya! The original Aramaic texts (Aramaic was the language that Jesus Christ spoke) say that the name of Petra, the ancient temple of Jordan, was Rekem-Gaya. 'Rechin' Gaya translates as Red-Gaya from Sanskrit - 'rechin' (रेचिन्) means 'red' as against the 'black' Gaia that Asius, the Greek poet wrote about in his verses on Pelasgus. Click here to read more about the Sanskrit connection to the name 'Petra' and 'Rekem-Gaya'.

The Petra Temple in Jordan has also been
identified as Rekem-Gaya
which means 'Red-Gaya'. 

As for the name Pelasgus, Edward Pococke writes, "Pelasa, the ancient name for the province of Bahara (Bihar) is so denominated from the Pelasa, or 'Butea Frondosa'. Pelasha is a derivative form of Pelasa, hence the Greek 'Pelasgos'". 'Butea Frondosa' is the botanical name for what is known in Sanskrit as 'Palasha' (पलाश) tree, commonly called 'the Flame of the Forest' in English. Pococke traces the exodus of a huge number of people from Bihar (then called by various names including Pelasa and Magadh) towards the Western reaches of the world. In fact, he traces the name Macedonia to Magadha via Makadonia.

'Palasha' (पलाश)
The Sanskrit name for 'Butea Frondosa'
The Greek name 'Pelasagus' originates
from Sanskrit 'Palasha.

Edward Pococke, who did extensive research on the Pelasgus tribe and their language which lead to the development of Greek language, had this to say, " The Greek language is a derivation from Sanskrit, therefore Sanskrit speaking people, i.e Indians must have dwelt in Greece, and the dwelling must have preceded the settlement of those tribes which helped to produce the corruption of the old language; or in other words, the people who spoke that language - i.e., the Indians, must have been the primitive settlers, or at least, they must have colonized the country so early, and dwelt their so long, as to have effaced all dialectic traces of any other inhabitants...".

Suggested Links:

Sunday, 26 January 2014


In native American languages the word for 'water' seems to stem from the Sanskrit 'apa' which means 'water'. In Cree, the word for water is 'nipiy' and does contain the Sanskrit sound 'apa' (आप) as 'ipi'. In Sanskrit 'apa' (आप) means 'water', as does 'ap' (अप्). 'Piva' (पीवा) also means water in Sanskrit.

The native American Cree name of the Saskatchewan River (a major river in Canada) was 'Kisiskaciwani-sipiy', which translates as 'swift flowing river'. In the Cree language though 'nipiy' means 'water', 'sipiy' stands for 'river'. In Sanskrit the verb 'srv'
(स्रव) stands for 'flow' or 'waterfall', hence 'sravin' (स्राविन्) is 'flowing' or 'streaming'. The root word for water flow is 'sR' (सृ), hence 'sarati' (सरति) 'to flow', or 'sravati' (स्रवति) 'gush forth'.

River Saskatchewan

In Cree language 'Katastapehk' has to do with 'fast' or swift and explains the first part of Kisiskaciawani. The second part of the word is identical to the Sanskrit 'avani' (अवनि) which means 'river' and 'flowing' as well. Again in Cree, 'aseciwan' means 'flowing backwards', and 'peciciwan' means 'flowing this way' - the 'ciavan' has to do with water flow, just like the Sanskrit 'avani'.

There are many other Cree words which bear a remarkable similarity to Sanskrit - such as 'yotin' which means 'wind'. This seems to have originated from Sanskrit 'vata' (वात) if one were to transpose the sound 'y' with 'v'.

Curiously the Cree 'yotinpeyaw' means 'wind on water' - here the 'yotin' stands for wind, and 'peyaw' means 'water', which brings us back to the Sanskrit 'piva' (पीवा) also meaning water.

In his book 'Oriental Fragments', Edward Moor without referring to its meaning in Cree language, breaks up Saskatchewan into Sasa, Katchwa and 'van'. In his chapter on 'Sanskrit in North American names'  he says," 'The plains of the Saskatchewan' - how Sanskritic! - Sasa  (or sasin) a hare, katchwa,- a tortoise and van, a vehicle...."

Suggested Links:

Tuesday, 21 January 2014


Mainstream sources trace the origin of the name Canada to the word 'kanata', a Native American word used by the First Nations, meaning 'settlement', 'village', or 'land'. ('First Nations' comprise of a group of Native American tribes that have been inhabiting the North American continent since antiquity).

Two theories have been put forth. It is said that either the word 'Canada' stems from the Mohawk word 'kanata' or from the Iroquoian word 'canada'. The two words hold the same meaning in both the languages - 'hut', 'village' or 'settlement'.

The question that is being dealt with here is whether there is any link between the Sanskrit language and Native American languages? In 1909, a lady by the name of Mrs. Helen Troy, was initiated into the Onondaga Native American tribe. Mrs. Troy and her mentor, Mrs. Isaac Thomas - the daughter of a Mohawk chief, had “delved deeply into the fascinating mythology of the Indians, of which comparatively little is known.” Troy and Thomas were both reportedly working on “a dictionary of the languages of the Six (Iroquious) Nations.” Their compilation of Onondaga and Mohawk words was said to total 30,000. On completion of the manuscript, Mrs. Troy made this observation, “There exists no doubt that the mythology of the Iroquois antedates that of the Greeks and Romans, and in fact all other peoples just as their language does that of the Hebrews and all others.” She further claimed “that Onondaga, the mother of all the languages, mothered also Sanskrit.” She had indeed found Sanskrit and Onondago languages to be closely linked. 

Here is a look at the word 'kanata' from which the name 'Canada' is said to be derived. The Onondogan word 'kanata' may be traced to two Sanskrit words - 'kanta' and 'anta'. 'Kanta' (कान्त) has two meanings -: 1) it means 'a certain type of a house', 2) the other more common meaning of the word is 'a settlement', a 'boundary' or the 'outskirt' of a town or village.Then there is the second word 'anta' (अन्त) which means  both 'outskirt of a village' and 'a settlement'. 

'Kanta' (कान्तmeans a 'village' or
a 'settlement' in Sanskrit.
Photo: aboutnativeamericans.blogspot.in
A related word of 'anta' is 'anantaga' (अनन्तग) which means 'moving indefinitely' or 'moving for ever' and in this context indicates to the 'movement of a tribe'. Though 'Anantaga' sounds a lot like Onanadaga, it most likely is not the root of the word 'Onandaga'. 'Onanta' which means a 'hill' in the Onondagan language seems to be much closer to the Sanskrit 'onantaya' (औन्नत्य) which means 'elevation' or 'height'.

A lot of research has been done on the name 'Québec' and it is said it originates from the Algonquin word kébec meaning "where the river narrows", originally referred to the area around Quebec City where the Saint Lawrence River narrows to a cliff-lined gap. Related words in Sanskrit are 'kucha' (कुच्) which means 'connecting part' or 'kantha' (कण्ठ) which means narrowest part.

Many Native American languages and the words therein that have survived seem to be combination words, much like that we have in Sanskrit. It is therefore sometimes difficult to identify the words within a combination word, and the difficulty also arises from the fact that parts of these languages are not understood today or have taken on a different meaning with time.

However, some parts of a combination word in Onondoagon or Delaware languages can still be identified with the help of Sanskrit. For example: in the Delaware word 'wuliechtottam' which literally translates as 'let's make good', the sound 'tottam' can be easily deciphered by a Sanskrit speaker - 'uttam' (उत्तम) is Sanskrit for 'good'. 

A curious factor is that many Native American words which have cognates in Sanskrit are cognates of very refined Sanskrit words, unlike words in European languages which are more often than not cognates of simpler Sanskrit words . For example, the Onondogon word for 'fish' is 'nameesha' - it is a cognate of Sanskrit 'animisha' (अनिमिष) which also means 'fish'. However, the more common word for 'fish' in Sanskrit is 'jhasa' (झष) or 'matsya' (मत्स्य) of which the PIE 'peisk' or Latin 'piscis' are cognates -from where the English 'fish' is derived. 

1. Hawkin's picture of Quebec: With Historical Recollection By Alfred Hawkins
2. Vedabase Dictionary
3. Zeisberger's Indian Dictionary
4. Sanskrit Dictionary

Wednesday, 15 January 2014


Wikipedia says that the city Vancouver (Canada) is named after French explorer George Vancouver who charted the north-western Pacific coast of North America in an expedition between the years 1791-94. The family name of George Vancouver, it is said is derived from the Dutch family name 'Van Coevorden' - meaning 'a person from Coevorden'. Coevordon translates from Dutch as 'the place where cows cross over a river'. There is a Sanskrit connection to the name 'Coevorden'.

George Vancouver.
Vancouver's name is derived
from the Dutch Name 'Coevordon' which 

translates as 'the place where cows cross the river'.

The Dutch scholar Marcus Zuerius van Boxhorn (1612-1653) was the first linguist to have noticed significant similarities between Sanskrit and Dutch. 

Linguist Marcus Zuerius van Boxhorn
(1612-1653) was the first scholar to have noticed 

similarities between Dutch and Sanskrit

Keeping that in mind, here is a look at the word 'Coevorden' through the Sanskrit lens. The first syllable 'Coev' is a distortion of the Sanskrit gau' (गो)* which means 'cow'. The second syllable 'vorden' which means a 'ford' which is a shallow part of a river used for crossing it, could be a distortion of the Sanskrit 'tugvan' (तुग्वन्) which means 'ford'. Or the Dutch 'vorden' may be derived from the Sanskrit 'vartaman' (वर्त्मन्) 'vartani' (वर्तनि) which means a 'path'. 

One could look at it another way. The Old English word 'ford' is said to derive from PIE 'prtu'- which is "a going or a passage" which is the same as the Sanskrit 'patha' (पथ) which means 'passage'.

* The Sanskri 'gau (गो) appears as 'coe' in Middle Dutch and as 'koe' in Dutch, in Old High German it appears as 'kuo', in German as 'Kuh', in Greek as 'bous', in Latin as 'bov', in Old Irish as 'bo', in Latvian as 'guovs', in Armenian as 'gaus'. It even appears in Sumerian as 'gu'. In Chinese too 'ngu' means 'ox'. 

So why should Sanskrit 'gau' be regarded as the source word and not the Latin or Greek forms of the word? Professor Lakshami Thathachar 
elaborates, "All modern languages have etymological roots in classical languages. Words in Sanskrit are instances of pre-defined classes, a concept that drives object oriented programming [OOP] today. 

For example, in English 'cow' is a just a sound assigned to mean a particular animal. But if you drill down the word 'gau' (गो), Sanskrit for 'cow', you will arrive at a broad class 'gam' (गम) which means 'to move. From these derive 'gamanam', 'gatih' etc which are variations of 'movement'. All words have this OOP approach, except that defined classes in Sanskrit are so exhaustive that they cover, the material and abstract, indeed cosmic, experiences known to man. So in Sanskrit the connection is more than etymological". - 

- Quoted from www.veda.wikidot.com

Wednesday, 8 January 2014


Ramayana is 'Itihaasa' (इतिहास). 'Ithaasa' translates as 'it thus happened'! The story is at least 7000 years old. The planetary positions in the sky mentioned in the Ramayana to indicate the date when the events happened, have not occurred in the last 7000 years. We have no software to calculate as to when the same planetary positions might have occurred prior to roughly 5000 BC.

'Itihasa' commonly translated as 'history', is a Sanskrit combination word comprised of 'iti-ha-Asa' and means 'it thus - in truth - happened'. And yes, 'iti' (इति) means 'it'!

Here follows the description of Sri Rama's return flight from Lanka to Ayodhaya as described in the Valmiki Ramayana:

After his victory over Ravana, Sri Rama prepares to leave for Ayodhya and calls for the Pushpaka vimana. The flight traces the path he had walked from Ayodhya to Lanka along with Sita and Lakshmana over a period of 14 years gone by.

Vibhishana, who after the defeat and death of Ravana, had been installed as the ruler of Lanka, organizes the departure of Sri Rama, Sita and Lakshmana.*

Sri Rama, Sita and Lakshmana ascend the Pushpak Vimana. The vanaras at Lanka then request Rama to allow them to accompany him on board the 'spacious' Pushpak vimana, which Rama willingly permits. (Chapter 122).

The Pushpak vimana then takes off with a 'great sound'. (Chapter 123, Verse 1). Once in air and flying over Lanka, Sri Rama turns towards Sita and says, "Look at the city of Lanka, resting firmly on the mount of Trikuta, looking like a peak of Mount Kailasa and built by Viswarakarma, the universal architect." (Chapter 123, Verse -3).

Mt. Trikuta, Lanka.
The Pushpak Vimana flies past it.
Sri Rama points to the great battle field which is still covered with the blood and flesh of the Lanka rakshas and the vanaras who have lost their lives during the battle. (Chapter 123 - Verse 4).

In the verses that follow Sri Rama points out the locations at which Ravana, Kumbhakarna, Prahasta , Vidyunmali, Indrajit (the son of Ravana), Vikata, and other mighty demons had fallen in the battle. (Chapter 123, Verses 5-14).

Having flown over the battle field the Pushpak vimana is now flying over the ocean. Sri Rama states, "O Sita, the lovely-faced one! Here is seen a water-descent of the ocean on the sea-shore, where having crossed the ocean, we spent that night." (Verse 15).

Now comes the mention of the Nala Setu which in India is referred to as 'Rama Setu'. The western world refers to it as 'Adam's Bridge'.

Says Sri Rama, "O Sita, here is the bridge called Nala Setu, which was so difficult to execute for others, got built by me over the salt-sea for your sake." (Verse 16). Nala was the architect of the bridge.

A satellite picture of the now
submerged Rama-Setu 

The next verse confirms that the Pushpak vimana is indeed flying over water. "O Sita! See this roaring imperturbable and seemingly boundless ocean, the habitation of Varuna (the god of waters), which is teeming with conch and oyster-shells.". (Verse 17).

In Verse 18, Sri Rama points out the 'golden mountain' named 'Mainaka'. In Verse 19, he points out an island were he says that Lord Shiva "bestowed his grace on me".

As they fly ahead Sri Rama directs Sita's gaze to Setubandha, "Here is seen the water-descent of the gigantic ocean, called a Setubandha, adored in all the three worlds. This is very much a sacred spot, capable of washing away major sins. At this very place, Vibhishana the king of demons first came to meet me." This spot has been identified as Rameshwaram.

Nala Setu or Rama Setu.
The bridge that was constructed to connect
Rameshwaram and Sri Lanka

Flying ahead the vimana reaches Kishkinda where Sri Rama points out to Sita the beautiful city of Sugreeva. (Verse 22).

It is here that Sita requests Rama that they should make a halt and meet Sugreeva and other 'vanara' commandos who were stationed at Kishinda. Sita requests that the vanaras and their wives also be taken along on board the Pushpak to the city of Ayodhya. (Verse 23-24). Sri Rama agrees and the Pushpak lands at Kishkinda! 

Sri Rama meets Sugreeva and says to him,"O the king of monkeys! Instruct all the monkey-chiefs to come to Ayodhya in the company of their wives." (Verse 27).

Sri Rama instructs all to hurry up! Sugreeva informs Tara, who in turn informs all the vanara-wives. There is general excitement all over - the vanaras and the vanaris are beyond themselves at the news that they will be visiting the grand city of Ayodhya and that too on the Pushpak.

The next verse says, "Duly permitted by Tara, all the wives of the vanaras, going round the vimana clockwise, ascended it with an intent to see Sita (who hasn't de-planed and is still seated in the Pushpak). (Verse 36).

The Pushpak then takes off and is now headed towards Ayodhya. Verse 37 says, "The vimana having risen quickly, after having taken the wives of vanaras too, Rama again spoke to Sita at the vicinity of Mount Rishyamuka
He tells her that it was at Rishymuka that he had first met Sugreeva and made the agreement to kill Vali (Bali).

The temple at Rishimukha in Kishkinda on the spot
where Sugreeva is believed to have lived close
to the banks of the Pampa-Tungabhadra River.
Kishkinda is 5 km away from the sacred city of Hampi
They then fly over the Pampa River and Sri Rama recalls, "Here is seen Pampa-river......where I lamented with great pain, having been separated from you.... the virtuous Shabari was seen by me at the bank of this river .... Here was killed, Kabandha...". The Pampa River is now known as the Tungabhadra. (Verses 40-41)

They then fly over the forest of Janasthana where Jatayu was killed. Passing Janasthana forest they fly over Panchavati where Khara, Dushana and the Trishiras were killed. (Verse 44)

And then Sri Rama points out the spot from where Sita had been abducted, "And over there is seen our enchanting leaf-hut, where you were forcibly taken away by Ravana." (Verse 45).

The flight which is heading towards Ayodhya then flies over the hermitages of rishis and munis (sages) including Sutikshna, Sharabhanga, Atri and many more. (Verses 46-49).

They then fly over Chitrakuta, the spot where Bharat had come to meet with Sri Rama and pleaded with him to return to Ayodhya at the beginning of the exile. (Verse 51).

The flight now crosses over the Yamuna and Sri Rama says, "O Sita! Here is seen the beautiful river of Yamuna, surrounded by colourful groves. Here is seen the illustrious hermitage of Sage Bharadwaja." (Verse 52).

And then they are flying over the Ganges. "Here is seen the holy River Ganga, which wends its way through the three worlds (viz. heaven, the earth and the subterranean world), whose banks are crowded with flocks of birds and which is lined with trees in full-flowering." (Verse 53).

On to Sarayu River. "Here is the town of Shringaberapura, where Guha my friend stays. Here is seen that river, Sarayu, lined with rows of sacrificial posts (the relics of sacrifices performed from time to time by Ikshvaku dynasty)......" (Verse 54).

River Sarayu.
The Pushpak Vimana takes a detour
into present day Uttarakhand, 

the land of the rishisbefore landing at Ayodhya
And then they are at Ayodhya! "O Sita! Here is seen that Capital City of my father. O the princess of Videha! Having duly returned, offer your salutation to Ayodhya." (Verse 55)

Then Sri Rama, Sita and Lakshmana and the rest of the entourage including Vibhishana catch the first glance of the then majestic city of Ayodhya, its palaces and wide roads crowded with elephants and horses. The city resembled Amravati, the City of Indra, the lord of the celestials....

And the rejoicing continues. It was the first time Deepavali was celebrated on that Amavasya night. Imagine the site from the skies.....

For those who have claimed that the geography of Ramayana is questionable, one might add here that apart for a few detours that the Lanka - Kishkinda - Ayodhya flight takes, the route is perfect. And the few detours that are taken are ordered by the ever indulgent Sri Rama - hence confirming that he was aware of th scheduled route. This was a victory-cum-joy ride for the vanaras (who had valiantly fought for Sri Rama) and their wives and above all for Sita Mata.

*With Ramayana verses and translation inputs from http://www.valmikiramayan.net/

Thursday, 2 January 2014


The Rewa River is the widest river in Fiji. The Rewa originates in Mount Tomaniwi.

'Viti Levu' (Greater Fiji) and 'Vanua Levu' (Smaller Fiji) are
the two land masses that make the country of Fiji.
In Sanskrit 'Lava' (लव) means 'section' or 'part' of which
the Fijian word 'levu' may be a distortion.
'Vit' (वीत) means 'hidden'. 'Vanua' might be a
distortion of 'vana' (वन) which means 'forest'.

Mt. Tomaniwi is located on the Viti Levu Island. The name 'Tomaniwi' is a close cognate of the Sanskrit 'Toyanivi' (तोयनीवी) and means 'encircled by ocean'. During its colonial times, when the British governed Fiji from 1874-1970, Mt. Tomaniwi was known as Mt. Victoria but now the old name has been reinstated.

'Rewa River ' Fiji.
Named after the Vedic-Hindu Goddess 'Rewa'.

The etymology of 'Rewa' in the local Fijian traditions is not really known. However, Sanskrit and the ancient texts of India do throw some light on the name Reva. First of all the ancient name of the Narmada river of India is 'Reva' and has been mentioned in the Puranas . It says that the name 'Reva' is derived from the Sanskrit root word ‘rev’ (रेव्) which means to ‘hop’, 'leave', 'jump', 'move' or 'go'. 'Reva' (रेवा) or its extended form 'Revati' (रेवती) are common names for girls in India. 'Reva' (रेवा) means 'one that moves'. 'Reva' is also another name of the Hindu Goddess 'Rati' - the consort of Kama Deva. 'Revati' is the name of an asterism or nakshatra.

The Vedic Goddess 'Reva' - the
consort of  'Kamadeva'.
She is the goddess of love and passion.
The Rewa River in Fiji is fed by two large tributaries, the 'Wainibuka' and the 'Wainimala'. The prefix in both these names sounds like the Sanskrit 'Vana' (वन) and 'Vani' (वनी), both of which mean 'forest'. The second syllable 'buka' is probably a distortion of 'paga' (पग) . 'Vanapaga' (वनापग) means that which 'flows through the forest'. 'Wainimala' is close to the Sanskrit 'Vainimala'. Though 'Vana' means 'forest', 'vainI' (वेणी) means 'stream'. Then there is 'vaini' (वेणि) which means 'confluence of two streams'.

Another major river of Fiji is 'Nauva'. This name may be a distortion of the Sanskrit 'Navya' (नव्य) which means 'praiseworthy'. Another River goes by the name 'Nadi'. 'Nadi' (नदी) means 'river' and 'nAdI' (नाड़ी) means 'vein' . Then there is the 'Saunaka'. 'Shana' (शन) means 'slow' in Sanskrit - or 'slow moving' in this context. Also 'Saunaka' was the name of a Sage mentioned in the Indian scriptures called 'Puranas'.

Then there is the 'Suetambu' Creek. 'Suetambu' is phonetically close to 'Shwetambar' (श्वेतमबर) which means both 'clothed in white' and 'white skies'. It also happens to be the name of one of the sects of Jainism - the other being 'Digmabar'.
 Or even more likely 'Suetambu' 
may be a distortion of 'shweta' (श्वेतmeaning 'white' and 'ambu'  (अम्बुmeaning 'water'.

There are many rivers and mountains and places in Fiji whose names are close cognates of Sanskrit words. The same can be said about the names that one hears in the legends and mythology of Fiji.

In Fijian mythology, Degei (pronounced Ndengei), enshrined as a serpent, is the supreme god. 'Ndengei' sounds like the Vedic-Hindu 'Naga-Deva' (नाग-देव) meaning 'Serpent God'.

According to the legend, in the beginning there was only water and twilight everywhere and only an island existed. Degei was alone and the only living creature was the female hawk named Turukawa. In Sanskrit 'tura' (तुर) means 'strong' or 'powerful' or 'fast'. 'Kaga' (काग)  is 'crow', so is 'kaka' (काक) - 
which have distorted into 'kauva' or 'kava' in many Sanskrit derived languages such as Hindi. 'Turakava' translates as 'powerful crow'. 

In the Hindu mythology Sri Krishna banishes 'Kaliya' - a serpent that lived in a river in Vrindavan who terrorized the cattle and children of Vrindavan - to a beautiful island called Ramanaka Dweepa in a faraway ocean and it is believed that the Serpent brought his people and made his home in what Hindus believe was Fiji. Today, the Sri Krishna Kaliya Temple stands in Lautoka as a testimony to this belief. According to a centuries-old Fijian legend there is a gigantic, many-hooded snake said to be living in a cave in the interior of Mt. Nakauvadra in Fiji. Click here to read more about the Sanskrit connect to the name 'Nakauvadra'.

Krishna Kaliya Temple, Lautoka, Fiji
The image above depicts the legend of Sri Krishna 
and the Serpent Kaliya. Hindus believe that
Kaliya is the same as the Fijian Serpent 'Degei'.